The beginnings of

 residential childcare

in England and Wales



The 1901 census gives an indication of the residential childcare institutions already in place as the twentieth century began.


You can also have a look at institutions in the 1911 census here (far more institutions just 10 years later)


The links take you to other pages within this website




Central England

Eastern England

Northern England

South East England

South West England


Isle of Man / Channel Islands







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Central England


Aston Union Cottage Homes, Erdington, Birmingham


Beeston Orphanage, Nottinghamshire


Blue Coat School, Colmore Row, Birmingham


Chesterfield Union Industrial School, Newfold Road, Chesterfield More on industrial schools


Children's Emigration Homes, St Luke's Road, Birmingham


Cottage Homes, Arnos Lane, Wednesfield


Cottage Homes, Countesthorpe


Desford Industrial School, Ratby, Market Bosworth More on industrial schools


Industrial School, Gem Street, Birmingham


Industrial School, the Shawberry, Fillongley


Midland Orphanage, Lenton, Nottingham


Midland Truant School for Boys, Beacon Street, Lichfield


Nazareth House, St Sepulchre, Northampton


North Staffordshire School for the Blind and Deaf, Parkhall, Stoke on Trent


Nottingham training institution for Pauper Children, Hartley Road, Nottingham


Old Swinford Hospital for Orphans (Boys), Hagley Road, Stourbridge


Poor Law School, Wigmore, West Bromwich



Princess Alice Orphanage, New Oscott, Sutton Coldfield


Railway Servants' Orphanage, Ashbourne Road, Derby


Reformatory School for Juvenile Delinquents, Saltley, Birmingham


Royal Albert Orphan Asylum, Hernwick Road, Worcester


Royal Institution for Deaf and Dumb Children, Church Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham


Royal Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Derby


Royal Orphanage/ Wolverhampton Orphan Asylum, Goldthorn Hill, Wolverhampton


St Michael’s Home for Boys, Pelsall (Founded 1901) 


Sir Josiah Mason's Orphanage, Bell Lane, Erdington, Birmingham


Stafford Industrial Boys' School, Cheadle More on industrial schools


Standon Boys' Home / Industrial School, Standon, Stone More on industrial schools


St Philip Neri's Orphanage for Boys, Birmingham (founded 1861)


The Orphanage (RC), Southam, Rugby



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Eastern England



Hope House Orphanage, Ipswich (1875-1940)


St John's Home for Boys and Girls, Bloomfeld Street, Ipswich



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Northern England


Abbot Memorial Industrial School, Durham Road, Gateshead More on industrial schools


Adel Reformatory (for boys), Wharfedale More on reformatories


Albert Industrial School, Corporation Road, Birkenhead More on industrial schools


Ardwick Green Industrial School, 77 Ardwick Green, Manchester More on industrial schools - More on Manchester homes


Ashburton Industrial Home, Ashburton Road, Tyneside


Barnes Industrial School for Boys, Didsbury Road, Heaton Norris More on industrial schools


Beacon Lane Orphanage (RC), Beacon Road, Liverpool


Birkdale Farm School / Reformatory, Ainsdale, Southport More on reformatories


Bishop Brown's Memorial Industrial School, High Street, Stockport More on industrial schools


Bishop O'Reilly Memorial Poor Law School (RC), Honeygreen Road, Liverpool


Blackburn Orphanage




Blue Coat Hospital, School Lane, Liverpool


Bolton Industrial Reformatory for Boys, Lostock Junction, Bolton More on reformatories


Boys' Charity School, East Parade, Sheffield


Boys' Industrial School, Offerton More on industrial schools


Boys' Industrial School, Marygate, York More on industrial schools


Boys' Orphanage, Headingley, Leeds


Boys' Truant Industrial School, Marborough Terrace, Hull More on industrial schools


Buckley Hall Orphanage for Roman Catholic Boys, Wardleworth, Rochdale


Calder Farm Reformatory School (for boys), Hopton More on reformatories


Castle Howard Reformatory School (for boys), Welburn, Malton More on reformatories


Certified Industrial School, Boughton, Chester More on industrial schools


Certified Industrial School for Boys, 95 Everton Terrace, Liverpool More on industrial schools


Chadwick's Orphanage, Haulgh, Bolton


Cherrytree Orphanage, Totley


Children's Convalescent Home, Meol's Drive, West Kirby


Chorlton Union Cottage Homes, Styal, Wilmslow


Cumberland County Industrial School, Cockermouth, Cumbria More on industrial schools


Eden's Orphanage, Astley Bridge, Bolton


Edgworth Orphanage / Children's Home, Bolton (1872)


Foresters' Orphanage, Bridlington




















Girls' Industrial School, Northumberland Terrace, Liverpool More on industrial schools


Halifax Orphanage, Savile Park


Harris Orphanage, Fulwood, Preston


Henshaw's Blue Coat School (for boys), Horsedge Street, Oldham


Heswall Orphanage, Cheshire


Holly Mount Poor Law School, Tottington


Holy Trinity Certified Industrial School, 77 Grafton Street, Liverpool More on industrial schools


Home of Good Shepherd Industrial School, Shebdon, Southowram More on industrial schools


Hull Seamen's and General Orphan Asylum, Spring Bank, Hull


Indefatigable (ship for training orphans of sailors), Birkenhead


Industrial School for Boys, Witton Gilbert, Chester le Street More on industrial schools


Industrial School for Boys and Girls, Jubilee Road, Newcastle upon Tyne More on industrial schools


Kirkdale Industrial School, Kirkdale, Liverpool More on industrial schools


Leeds Union Industrial School, Beckett Street, Leeds More on industrial schools


Liverpool Seamen's Orphan Institution, Orphan Drive, Newsham Park, Liverpool


Liverpool Farm School / Reformatory, Newton le Willows More on reformatories


Liverpool Truants' School, Hightown, Southport


Macclesfield Certified Industrial School, Brook Street, Macclesfield More on industrial schools


Major Street Ragged School, Liverpool (founded 1860) More on ragged schools


Manchester and Salford Reformatory, Blackley, Manchester More on reformatories


Manchester Female Orphan Home and Refuge


Manchester Industrial School for Girls, Northenden Road, Sale More on industrial schools - More on Manchester homes


Manchester Poor Law School, Chorley Road, Swinton More on Manchester homes


Manchester Warehousemen and Clerks' Orphanage, Cheadle Hulme


Miners' Orphanage, Bolsover


Nazareth House, Great Crosby


Nazareth House, Park Road North. Middlesborough


Nicholls Hospital, Hyde Road, Manchester


North Eastern Reformatory for Boys, Nedderton More on reformatories


North Lancashire Reformatory, Bleasdale, Garstang More on reformatories


Ormerod Convalescent Home, Lytham St Anne's


Ormskirk Union Workhouse Children's Wards, Wigan Road, Knowsley


Orphanage (girls), Faulkener Street, Liverpool


Orphans' Asylum, Melville Place, Liverpool


Orphans' Asylum (girls), Myrtle Street, Liverpool


Port of Hull Orphan Homes, Cottingham Road, Hull


Reformatory School (RC), Holme, Howden More on reformatories


Ripley Hospital for Orphans and Fatherless Children, Lancaster


Rochdale Union Cottage Homes, Middlewood


Royal Deaf and Dumb Institution, Chester Road, Old Trafford


St Anne's Industrial School, West Lane, Freshfield, Southport More on industrial schools


St Elizabeth's Industrial School for Girls (RC), 64 Breckfield Road South, Liverpool More on industrial schools


St George's Industrial School for boys (RC), 137a West Derby Rd, Liverpool More on industrial schools


St Joseph's Home and Reformatory for Girls (RC), Howard Road, Sheffield


St Joseph's Industrial School, Carmel Road, Darlington More on industrial schools


St Joseph's Industrial School for Boys, Richmond Grove, Manchester More on industrial schools - More on Manchester homes


St Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Victoria Road, Rusholme More on industrial schools


St Joseph's Orphanage (RC), Theatre Street, Preston


St Mary's Convent and Orphanage (RC), Richmond Hill, Leeds


St Vincent Boys' Home (RC), Garstang Road, Fulwood More on St Vincent de Paul


St Vincent de Paul Home for Boys (RC), 105 Shaw Street, Liverpool - More on St Vincent de Paul


School for Deaf and Dumb, Melville Place, Liverpool


Sculcoates Union Cottage Homes, Hessle


Shadwell Industrial School (for boys), Shadwell Lane, Wetherby More on industrial schools


Sheffield Union Children' Home, Smilter Lane, Sheffield


Southampton - Industrial School training ship, Alexandra Dock, Hull


Sunderland Orphanage


Teachers' Orphanage, Sunderland


West Derby Union Cottage Homes, Fazakerley




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South-east England






















Actors' Orphanage, Croydon (1896)


Alexandra Orphanage, Hornsey Rise, Islington


All Saints Boys' Orphanage, Granville Park, Lewisham


All Saints Boy's Orphanage, 12, 13, 14 Gordon Square, Birchington


All Saints Boy's Orphanage, Granville Park & Lewisham Road, Lewisham


All Saints Convalescent Hospital, Meads, Eastbourne


All Saints Home for Married Women & Infants, Holyrood House, The Avenue, Beckenham


Asylum for Fatherless Children, Purley (founded 1844)


Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb Children of the Poor, Victoria Road, Isle of Thanet


Babies' Castle, Hawkhurst (Dr Barnardo's)


Bethnal Green Poor Law Union School, Leystonstone


Boys' Home / Industrial School, Regents Park Road, St Pancras More on industrial schools


Boys' Home Reformatory, Spanish Road, Wandsworth Common More on reformatories


Boys' Home, Stepney Causeway, Stepney



Boys’ Industrial Home, Shaftesbury House, Perry Rise, Forest Hill


Boys' Industrial School, Southwark Street, Southwark More on industrial schools


Boys’ Orphanage, Montagne House, Dartmouth Hill, Greenwich


Boys’ Orphan House, Southwark House, St Lawrence, Ramsgate


British Orphan Asylum, Slough


Brixton Orphanage (for 300 fatherless girls), 53-57 Barrington Road, Lambeth


Carter Boys' Home, High Street, Clapham


The Children's Home, Parrock Hall, Parrock Road, Gravesend


Cholera Orphan Home, Richmond


Church of England Home for Waifs & Strays, 3 Biggin St, Dover More on the Waifs and Strays


Church Missionaries Children's Homes, Limpsfield


Colony for Epileptics (adults and children), Chalfont St Peter, Amersham


Commercial Travellers' School for Orphan and Necessitous Children, Hatch End, Pinner


Convalescent Home for Children (RC), Lawn House, Grosvenor Place, Margate More on convalescent homes


Convent and Orphanage of the Sisters of Bethany, Church Road, Boscombe


Convent of Notre Dame, St George's Road, Southwark


Convent of the Sacred Heart Certified School for RC children, Hassett Road, Homerton


Cowley Industrial School, Headington More on industrial schools


Cripples’ Nursery, 10 Sea View Terrace, Margate


 Deptford Orphanage and Home for Friendless Girls


Dr Barnardo's Village Homes for Destitute Girls, Barkingside


Duke of York's Royal Military Asylum for Children of Soldiers, Cheltenham Terrace, Chelsea


East Kent Industrial Home, Dover House, 51 Grange Road, Ramsgate More on industrial schools


East London Industrial School, Poison Street, Lewisham More on industrial schools


Edmonton Union Chase Farm School, The Ridgeway, Enfield


Farningham Home for Little Boys, Horton Kirby


Feltham Industrial School, Staines More on industrial schools


Female Orphan Asylum, Beddington Park, Croydon


Female Orphan Asylum, Brighton (founded 1822)


Field Lane Certified Industrial School for Boys, Hillfield Road, Hampstead More on industrial schools


Forest Gate Workhouse School, 95 Forest Lane, Forest Gate


Fortescue House for Boys, London Road, Twickenham


Foundling Hospital, Guildford Street, St Pancras


Freemens' Orphan School, Ferndale Road, Lambeth


Girls’ Club & Home, 26 Simpsons Rd, Bromley


Girls’ Home, 1 Blythe Hill, Catford


Girl's Industrial Home, 16 Rojack Road, Forest Hill More on industrial schools


Girls' Industrial School and Home, St Mary's Road, Ealing More on industrial schools


Girls' Orphan Home, 64-74 Lewisham Rd, Lewisham


Good Templar and Temperance Orphanage


Gordon Boys' Home, Chobham, Chertsey


Gordon's Boys' Orphanage, 7 Biggin St, Dover


Hackney Union Cottage Homes (Sidney Road Children's Homes), Sidney Road, Homerton


Hackney Union Training School, Brentwood


Hanwell Poor Law School for Pauper Children, Hanwell


Hertford Reformatory School, Chapman End, Hertford More on reformatories


Highbury Truant School, Highbury Grove, Islington


Holburn Union (St George's) Workhouse School, London Road, Wimbledon


Holme Cowe Industrial Truant School, Twickenham


Home & Infirmary for sick children, Sydenham Road, Sydenham


Home and School for Little Boys, Leopold House, 199 Burdett Road, Stepney (Dr Barnardo's)


Home for afflicted orphans, Granville Rd, Broadstairs


Home for Destitute Boys / Essex Industrial School, Rainsford Road, Chelmsford More on industrial schools


Home for Little Cripples, Grove Road, Bethnal Green


Home for Orphan Boys, Hextable, Sutton at Stow, Dartford

Home for Orphan Boys, Swanley


Home for the Fatherless, 76 Lewisham Road, Greenwich


Homes for Little Boys, South Darenth, Horton Kirby


Home for Working Boys, 85 Beresford Street, Woolwich


Hornchurch Cottage Homes, Hornchurch


Infant Orphan Asylum, Wanstead (founded 1827)


Infant Pauper Asylum, Surrey House, London


Institute for the daughters of missionaries, Walthamstow Hall, Sevenoaks


Isle of Thanet Workhouse School, Thanet


Islington Workhouse School, Andover Row, Hornsey Road


Jew's Hospital and Orphan Asylum, Knights Hill Road, West Norwood


John Groom's Orphanage, Clacton on Sea


Kent County Industrial School, Kingsnorth, Ashford More on industrial schools


Kidbrook Girls’ Home, Old Dover Rd, Blackheath


King Edward Industrial School for Girls, Andrews Road, Hackney More on industrial schools


King Edward's Home for Destitute Boys, Wormley Hill, Witley


King Edward's Orphanage, St George's Road, Southwark


London Asylum for Orphans, Hackney (founded 1813)


London Orphans' Asylum, Watford


Mayford Industrial School, Mayford, Woking More on industrial schools


Metropolitan and City Police Orphanage, Wellesley House, Hampton Road, Twickenham


Metropolitan Asylum School for Idiots, Darenth


Metropolitan Infirmary for Children Northumberland Road, Margate


National Industrial Home for Crippled Boys, Wrights Lane, Kensington


National Refuges House for Girls, Sudbury Hall, Harrow


Nazareth House, Bexhill


Nazareth House, Cowley Road, Oxford


Nazareth House, Hammersmith Road, Hammersmith


Nazareth House, Isleworth


Nazareth House, Lawrence Road, Portsmouth


Nazareth House, London Road, Southend on Sea


Orphan Working School, Maitland Park, St Pancras


Orphanage (Wesleyan), Victoria Park, Bethnal Green


Orphanage for Destitute Children, Randolph Gardens, Kilburn


Orphanage of Mercy - Home of the Sisters of the Church & Orphanage, Percy Road, Kilburn


Orphans’ Home, The Cedars, Overcliffe, Gravesend


Orphans’ Home, 72 Upper Grosvenor Road, Tunbridge Road


Orphans' House, Austral Street, Southwark


Percy House Workhouse School, Twickenham Road, Brentford


Philanthropic Society's Farm School (reformatory), Redhill More on reformatories


Poor Law School, Bancroft Road, Stepney


Portsmouth Children's Home, St Mary's Road, Portsmouth (run by the Poor Law Union) - a history of this children's home is written up in The Homes on the Hill


Princess Louise Home, Gloucester Road, Kingston Upon Thames


Princess Mary Village Homes, Crouch Oak Road, Addlestone


Ragged School Union Children’s Holiday Home, Dover Road, Folkestone More on ragged schools


Reading and Wokingham District School for Pauper Children, Wargrave, Twyford, Wokingham


Reedham Asylum (for fatherless children), Reedham, Croydon


Rest Home for Girls, Elm Park Villa, The Elms, Ramsgate


Rochester & Chatham Industrial Home for Friendless Girls, 1 Ordnance Terrace, Chatham


Royal Albert Orphan Asylum, Portsmouth Road, Frimey


Royal Asylum of St Anne's, Redhill


Royal Caledonian Asylum (for the children of Soldiers and Sailors), Caledonian Road, Holloway


Royal Merchant Seamen’s Orphanage Royal Merchant Seamen’s Orphanage, Snaresbrook, London


Royal Victoria Patriotic Asylum for fatherless daughters of Sailors, Soldiers and Marines, Wandworth Common


Saints Joseph and Anne Orphanage, Farnborough, Sevenoaks


School and home of the Convent of the Sisters of Providence, 198 Hampstead Hill, Hampstead


School for Paupers' Children, Kings Street, Hammersmith


School for the Indigent Blind, Lambeth Road, Southwark


Seamen’s Orphan Home, Portsmouth


Shaftesbury School Orphanage (for boys), Bisley, Chertsey


Sisters of Charity of St Vincent de Paul Orphanage, Carlisle Place, Westminster More on St Vincent de Paul


Soldiers' Daughters' Home/Orphanage/Sailor Orphan Girls' School, Rosslyn Hill, Hampstead (founded 1829)


South Grove Home for Children of Poorer Clergy, Naval, Military etc., 10 Smith Grove, Tunbridge Wells


South Western Railway Servants’ Orphanage, Woking


St Agnes' Orphanage, Church Road, Walthamstow


St Barnabas Orphanage, west Chiselhurst


St Charles' Poor Law School, Weald Lane, Brentwood


St Edward's Reformatory School, Green Street, East Ham More on reformatories


St Edward's School for Orphan Sons of the Clergy, St Thomas Hill, St Dunstan


St John's Industrial School, Church Lane, Walthamstow More on industrial schools


St Joseph's Home for Boys, West Grinstead


St Joseph's House (Little Sisters of the Poor), Portobello Road, Kensington


St Joseph's RC School, Brook Green, Hammersmith


St Margaret's Convent Orphanage, East Grinstead


St Margaret's Industrial School, Mill Hill More on industrial schools


St Mary Magdalene’s Children’s Home, 23/5 East Cliff, Folkestone

St Mary’s Convalescent Home, Stone Rd, Broadstairs


St Mary's Industrial School, Wellesley Road, Croydon More on industrial schools


St Mary's Orphanage, (RC), North Hyde, Heston


St Michael’s Orphanage, Chiselhurst


St Nicholas Industrial School, Whitt Road, Manor Park, East Ham More on industrial schools


St Pancras Poor Law School, Leavesden, Watford


St Peter’s Orphanage & Sanatorium, Stone  St Peters, Broadstairs


St Stephens Industrial Home for Training Domestic Servants, 23/9 High Street, Lewisham


St Vincent de Paul's Orphanage, 9 Lower Seymour Street, Portman Square More on St Vincent de Paul


St Vincent Home for Boys, 337 Harrow Road, Paddington More on St Vincent de Paul


St Vincent's Industrial School (RC), Dartford More on St Vincent de Paul


St Vincent's School and Orphanage, Mill Hill More on St Vincent de Paul


Stockwell Orphanage, Clapham Road, Stockwell


Strand Union Workhouse School, Tanners Yard, Enfield






Temporary Home for Fallen & Destitute Women & Girls, 54 Hardy Street, Maidstone


Training Home for Girls, 22 Woodland Park Rd, Greenwich


Training Home for Orphan Girls, Folkestone Rd , Dover


Training Home for Weak Minded Boys, Bearsted House, Bearsted


Upper Norwood Convent and Orphanage, Central Hill, Upper Norwood


Upton House Truant Industrial School, Urswick Road, Homerton More on industrial schools


Victoria Orphanage, Shirland Road, Paddington


Victoria Seaside Orphans Rest, 1/2 Launceston Place, Dover


Walthamstow Truant School, 115 High Street, Walthamstow


Warren Farm School / Newhaven Union workhouse school, Rottingdean



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South West England


Bathwick Orphanage, Bath


Blue Maids' Orphanage / Bristol Asylum for Poor Orphan Girls, Stokes Croft Turnpike, Bristol (founded 1795)


Bristol Scattered Homes, Beaufort Road / Summerhill Road, Bristol


Clifton Certified Industrial School for Boys, Church Path, Bristol More on industrial schools


Devon and Cornwall Female Orphan Asylum, Plymouth


Herefordshire and District Working Boys Home and Industrial School, Bath Street, Hereford More on industrial schools


Home for the Boys of Bristol Union, Cumberland Road, Bristol


Keynsham Reformatory School, Keynsham More on reformatories


Mount Edgcombe Industrial School, Saltash More on industrial schools


Muller's Orphanage, Ashley Down, Bristol


New Orphan House, Ashley Down, Bristol


Reformatory School for Girls, Convent of the Good Shepherd, Arno's Court, Bath Road, Bristol More on reformatories


Royal British Female Orphan Asylum, Stoke Terrace, Stoke, Devonport, Plymouth


St Elizabeth's Industrial School for Roman Catholic Girls, Exeter Street, Salisbury More on industrial schools


St Elizabeth's Orphanage of Mercy, Eastcombe, Gloucestershire (founded 1800)


St Mary's Priory Orphans' Home, St Mary's Church, Torquay


St Vincent de Paul Orphanage, Elizabeth House, Lower Bullingham, Hereford More on St Vincent de Paul


Seamen’s Orphanage, Brixham, Devon


Somerset Industrial School for Boys, Lower Bristol Road, Bath More on industrial schools


West of England and South Wales Industrial School (RC), Cannington, Bridgwater


West of England Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Yopsham Road, Exeter


Wiltshire Reformatory, Warminster (founded 1856) More on reformatories



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Aberdare Industrial School, Trecymon, Llwydcoed More on industrial schools


Clio - Industrial training ship, Menai Straits


Cottage Homes, Llantwitfardre, Llantrisant


Newport Union Caerleon School, Mill Street, Caerleon


Nazareth House, Blackweir, Cardiff


Pantasaph Orphanage, Holywell



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Isle of Man and Channel Islands


Industrial School, Strathallan, Douglas More on industrial schools


Jersey Industrial School, St Martins, Gory More on industrial schools



More pages of

ORPHANAGES and other institutions:






It was towards the end of the nineteenth century that the idea of providing residential care for children away from the workhouse really took hold in England and Wales.


Before this, residential institutions for children - orphanages and homes - were few and far between. A child finding him or herself destitute and living on the streets or our newly growing towns and cities was likely to stay that way unless they found themselves dragged off to the workhouse or the prisons.


It is hard to imagine this situation as we now take it for granted that children need specific welfare services and should have access to a roof over their heads and food in their mouths.


The philanthropic response

While social welfare is the remit of government these days, it was individual people who funded our first forays into residential childcare. These philanthropists - Thomas Coram, Dr Barnardo - who built our first orphanages at great personal expense.


The majority of this type of response came from the mid nineteenth century onwards. While much of it had a religious motivation, this was not exclusively so.


The local government response

Local government was structured differently pre-1930. A board of Guardians in each local union had responsibility for administering Poor Law regulations for their population. In the main, this focused solely on the building of a workhouse into which children were admitted along with the adults. It was not until the late nineteenth century that there was a mind change about workhouses and a strong move towards providing separate accommodation for children away from the adults. Initially this manifested as separate spaces and schooling within the workhouses, but, as the nineteenth century ended, more and more Poor Law Unions were investing in separate buildings known as cottage homes or scattered homes.


The result of these two different responses - the earlier philanthropic response being joined by the later local government response - was that the turn of the century was a 'boom time' for orphanages and homes. In the twentieth century we ran with the idea of separate residential accommodation for orphaned, destitute and abandoned children and other children in need and developed in the children's services element of state-provided socal care we see today.



More pages of

ORPHANAGES and other institutions: